Sci-Fi Shapes - The BlocksR.U.R. is a 1920 science-fiction play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek. English language and to science fiction as a whole. R.U.R. soon became influential after its publication. By 1923, it had been translated into thirty languages. R.U.R. was successful in its time in Europe and North America. Čapek later took a different approach to the same theme in his 1936 novel War with the Newts, in which non-humans become a servant-class in human society. Parentheses indicate names which vary according to translation. On the meaning of the names, see Ivan Klíma, Karel Čapek: Life and Work, 2002, p. Harry Domin (Domain): General Manager, R.U.R. Should you loved this information and you would love to receive more details relating to tubes and hollow bars in the Czech Republic please visit our own web site. Fabry: Chief Engineer, R.U.R. Dr. Gall: Head of the Physiological Department, R.U.R. Busman (Jacob Berman): Managing Director, R.U.R. Alquist: Clerk of the Works, R.U.R. The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people, called roboti (robots), whom humans have created from synthetic organic matter. As living creatures of artificial flesh and blood rather than machinery, the play’s concept of robots diverges from the idea of “robots” as inorganic.

Robots may be mistaken for humans and can think for themselves. Initially happy to work for humans, the robots revolt and cause the extinction of the human race. Helena, the daughter of the president of a major industrial power, arrives at the island factory of Rossum’s Universal Robots. Here, she meets Domin, the General Manager of R.U.R., who relates to her the history of the company. Rossum had come to the island in 1920 to study marine biology. In 1932, Rossum had invented a substance like organic matter, though with a different chemical composition. He argued with his nephew about their motivations for creating artificial life. While the elder wanted to create animals to prove or disprove the existence of God, his nephew only wanted to become rich. Young Rossum finally locked away his uncle in a lab to play with the monstrosities he had created and created thousands of robots.

They have become essential for industry. After meeting the heads of R.U.R., Helena reveals that she is a representative of the League of Humanity, an organization that wishes to liberate the robots. The managers of the factory find this absurd. They see robots as appliances. Helena asks that the robots be paid, but according to R.U.R. Eventually Helena is convinced that the League of Humanity is a waste of money, but still argues robots have a “soul”. Later, Domin confesses that he loves Helena and forces her into an engagement. Ten years have passed. Helena and her nurse Nana discuss current events, the decline in human births in particular. Helena and Domin reminisce about the day they met and summarize the last ten years of world history, which has been shaped by the new worldwide robot-based economy. Helena meets Dr. Gall’s new experiment, Radius. Dr. Gall describes his experimental robotess, also named Helena. Both are more advanced, fully-featured robots. In secret, Helena burns the formula required to create robots.

The revolt of the robots reaches Rossum’s island as the act ends. The characters sense that the very universality of the robots presents a danger. Echoing the story of the Tower of Babel, the characters discuss whether creating national robots who were unable to communicate beyond their languages would have been a good idea. As robot forces lay siege to the factory, Helena reveals she has burned the formula necessary to make new robots. The characters lament the end of humanity and defend their actions, despite the fact that their imminent deaths are a direct result of their choices. Busman is killed while attempting to negotiate a peace with the robots. The robots storm the factory and kill all the humans except for Alquist, the company’s Clerk of the Works (Head of Construction). Years have passed. Alquist, who still lives, attempts to recreate the formula that Helena destroyed. He is a mechanical engineer, though, with insufficient knowledge of biochemistry, so he has made little progress.

The robot government has searched for surviving humans to help Alquist and found none alive. Officials from the robot government beg him to complete the formula, even if it means he will have to kill and dissect other robots for it. Alquist yields. He will kill and dissect robots, thus completing the circle of violence begun in Act Two. Alquist is disgusted. Robot Primus and Helena develop human feelings and fall in love. Playing a hunch, Alquist threatens to dissect Primus and then Helena; each begs him to take him- or herself and spare the other. Alquist now realizes that Primus and Helena are the new Adam and Eve, and gives the charge of the world to them. The robots described in Čapek’s play are not robots in the popularly understood sense of an automaton. They are not mechanical devices, but rather artificial biological organisms that may be mistaken for humans. DOMIN: Sulla, let Miss Glory have a look at you.

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Vitreous enamel is versatile in the sense that it can be applied to almost any metal. Austria and Germany were the first countries to apply enamel commercially to sheet iron and steel which is now common world wide. The key ingredient of vitreous enamel is frit which is actually a type of glass. The curved bowl of Belgian beer glasses directs the hop aroma’s (responsible for 75% of the beers taste) better towards your nose than a straight pint glass. Thin glass walls will keep a drink colder. The more pure quartz is used to make the glass, the thinner the walls can be. The Atomium was built for the 1958 World’s Fair in Brussels and is shaped to form one unit cell of an iron crystal, magnified 165 billion times. It symbolises the democratic wish to have peace between all people in technical and scientific development. Despite the fact that the Atomium was not intended to survive beyond 1958, it is now a key landmark of Brussels.

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